Types of Firewalls………….
The firewalls can be broadly categorized into the following three types:
- Packet Filters
- Application-level Gateways
- Circuit-level Gateways
- Packet Filters: Packet filtering router applies a set of rules to each incoming IP packet and then forwards or discards it. Packet filter is typically set up as a list of rules based on matches of fields in the IP or TCP header. An example table of telnet filter rules is given in Fig. 8.3.2. The packet filter operates with positive filter rules. It is necessary to specify what should be permitted, and everything that is explicitly not permitted is automatically forbidden.
- Application-level Gateway: Application level gateway, also called a Proxy Server acts as a relay of application level traffic. Users contact gateways using an application and the request is successful after authentication. The application gateway is service specific such as FTP, TELNET, SMTP or HTTP.
- Circuit Level Gateway: Circuit-level gateway can be a standalone or a specialized system. It does not allow end-to-end TCP connection; the gateway sets up two TCP connections. Once the TCP connections are established, the gateway relays TCP segments from one connection to the other without examining the contents. The security function determines which connections will be allowed and which are to be disallowed.