Category Archives: Knowledge


HTML – base tag example.

Description :

The base tag is a HTML tag. It specifies a base(default) URL for all link in the page.

Code :

<base href=””&gt;
<title>HTML is a markup language</title>
<h1>HTML — base tag. </h1>
&nbsp;<a href=”/techindex/html/index.html”>See HTML Examples Code …….</a>




Splitter in C#……………….

It is placed after/before control. At run time if u keep mouse control at edge of control a small arrow appears using it you can increase/decrease size of the control. (Control which has expandability).

Procedure :

1)    Increase the form size to maximum, take treeview control, set its dock property to left.

2)    Take splitter

3)    Take listview control, increase the size according to form.


int a, b, c, d;

private void Form6_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)


a = treeView1.Width;

b = listView1.Left;


private void splitter1_SplitterMoved(object sender, SplitterEventArgs e)


c = treeView1.Width;

d = c – a;

listView1.Left = b + d;

listView1.Width = this.Width – listView1.Left;




How to Delete Outlook Express Accounts……………

If you change Internet Service Providers or simply have an email account you no longer wish to check, it is a simple task to remove the email account in Outlook Express. With just a few clicks of the mouse, the unwanted email is deleted and will not be checked in the future. This can be done with any email address that you no longer need or use.


1. Open Outlook Express on your computer. Click “Tools” from the menu at the top of the screen. Click “Accounts” from the options given.

2. Choose the “Mail” tab from Internet accounts screen. Highlight the email amount you wish to delete, clicking on the account name.

3. Select “Remove.” Click “Yes” when the program asks if you are sure. The email account will now be deleted.



Difference Between WiMAX and Wi-Fi…………..

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are wireless technologies. “WiMAX” stands for “Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access” and “Wi-Fi” stands for “Wireless Fidelity.” They are different from each other in many ways. In this article we will discuss WiMAX IEEE 802.16 and Wi-Fi 802.11.

WiMAX has two different versions; fixed and mobile versions. The mobile version is 802.16 m and can replace CDMA and GSM technologies. The fixed version is 802.16d, and 802.16e is used for home whereas Wi-Fi which comes in 802.11 families has many versions like 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n

Wi-Fi operates in spectrum which is unlicensed. It may interfere with each other and with cordless phones also. It can operate in uncontrolled environments along with Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, and sometimes microwave frequencies too. This results in a powerful device, and the one which is closer to the access point getting more airtime than its fair share. Whereas WiMAX was developed in a way that it requires a license. The frequencies and license has to be purchased. These frequencies are more powerful and of a higher range. It has more of control and command and can be used for cable, Internet, and DSL. It helps in providing services like video, data, voice, etc.



How to create a SQL Connection in C Sharp……….

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

namespace Database
class Program
static void Main(string[] args)
// String copy in notepad from property windows
string conString = @”Data Source=.\SQLEXPRESS;AttachDbFilename=””D:\visual studio2010\Database\Database\emp.mdf””;Integrated Security=True;User Instance=True” ;

SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(conString);

string sql = “select Fname,Lname,Email,Mobile from employee where IsActive = 1”;

//Fire Querry
SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(sql,con);

//Get Result of Querry
SqlDataReader rd = cmd.ExecuteReader();

//Iterate over all result
string msg = string.Format(“Fname = {0} Lname = {1} Email = {2} \n Mobile = {3}”,rd[“Fname”],rd[“Lname”],rd[“Email”],rd[“Mobile”]);






Configure your Outlook 2010 Client with Gmail….

Enabling POP

1. Sign in to Gmail.

2. Click Settings at the top right corner of your Gmail page.

3. Click Forwarding and POP/IMAP at the top middle.

4. Select Enable POP for all mail radio button.

5. Choose what to do with your messages after they’re accessed with your POP client or device.

6. Enable the IMAP.

7. Configure your POP client and click Save Changes.

Outlook Configuring

1. Open Outlook.

2. Click the File menu, and select Add Account in Account Information on top…

3. Fill in all necessary fields to include the following information:

Your Name: Enter your name as you would like it to appear in the From: field of outgoing messages.

Email Address: Enter your full Gmail email address ( Google users, enter your full address in the format

Password: Enter your email password.

Text Messaging: Leave this option unchecked.

Manually configure server settings or additional server types: Leave this option unchecked if you want to automatically configure Outlook 2007.

4. Click Next. If you are configuring Outlook 2010 automatically, you’re done! Just click Finish.



Asynchronous JavaScript Technology and XML (Ajax)

Using JavaScript technology, an HTML page can asynchronously make calls to the server from which it was loaded and fetch content that may be formatted as XML documents, HTML content, plain text, or JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). The JavaScript technology may then use the content to update or modify the Document Object Model (DOM) of the HTML page. The term Asynchronous JavaScript Technology and XML ( Ajax ) has emerged recently to describe this interaction model.

Ajax is not new. These techniques have been available to developers targeting Internet Explorer on the Windows platform for many years. Until recently, the technology was known as web remoting or remote scripting. Web developers have also used a combination of plug-ins, Java applets, and hidden frames to emulate this interaction model for some time. What has changed recently is the inclusion of support for the XMLHttpRequest object in the JavaScript runtimes of the mainstream browsers. The real magic is the result of the JavaScript technology’s XMLHttpRequest object. Although this object is not specified in the formal JavaScript technology specification, all of today’s mainstream browsers support it. The subtle differences with the JavaScript technology and CSS support among current generation browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari are manageable. JavaScript libraries such as Dojo , Prototype , and theYahoo User Interface Library  have emerged to fill in where the browsers are not as manageable and to provide a standardized programming model. Dojo, for example, is addressing accessibility, internationalization, and advanced graphics across browsers — all of which had been thorns in the side of earlier adopters of Ajax. More updates are sure to occur as the need arises.



Difference between Dispose and Finallize method……

The .NET garbage collector manages the memory of managed objects (native .NET objects) but it does not manage, nor is it directly able to clean up unmanaged resources. Managed resources are those that are cleaned up implicitly by the garbage collector. You do not have to write code to release such resources explicitly. In contrast, you must clean up unmanaged resources (file handles, database collections, etc.) explicitly in your code.

There are situations when you might need to allocate memory for unmanaged resources from managed code. As an example, suppose you have to open a database connection from within a class. The database connection instance is an unmanaged resource encapsulated within this class and should be released as soon as you are done with it. In such cases, you’ll need to free the memory occupied by the unmanaged resources explicitly, because the GC doesn’t free them implicitly.

Briefly, the GC works as shown below:

It searches for managed objects that are referenced in managed code.
It then attempts to finalize those objects that are not referenced in the code.
Lastly, it frees the unreferenced objects and reclaims the memory occupied by them.
The GC maintains lists of managed objects arranged in “generations.” A generation is a measure of the relative lifetime of the objects in memory. The generation number indicates to which generation an object belongs. Recently created objects are stored in lower generations compared to those created earlier in the application’s life cycle. Longer-lived objects get promoted to higher generations. Because applications tend to create many short-lived objects compared to relatively few long-lived objects, the GC runs much more frequently to clean up objects in the lower generations than in the higher ones.



What is CDMA………

CDMA stands for “Code Division Multiple Access”. It is a multiple access technique that is used for sharing of a single frequency channel between multiple nodes in a network to facilitate their duplex communication with a single central node. This technique is used in CDMA mobile systems and also in Wireless lan. IN CDMA mobile systems, the Base Station acts as the central node of the network while the mobile units in a cell are the multiple nodes sharing a single frequency channel between them for their communication with the Base Station. Normally Frequency Division Duplexing is used in these systems i.e. two channels are used, one for downlink from Base Station to the various mobile stations and second for uplink from the mobile stations to the Base Station. In case of a wireless LAN, CDMA is used to set up a similar communication scheme between the access point of the network and the various Wireless Clients.

For example: – Let three sources A, B, C are transmitting their signals to a central node D in a network using CDMA technique. Now if D wants to recognize the signal from A, then it will decode the whole received signal using the pseudorandom sequence unique to A. After decoding, only the original signal of A will be present while the signal from B and C will just appear as noise to the system. This noise puts an upper limit on the capacity of a CDMA system. In the reverse mode, If D wants to transmit a signal to A; it will encode the signal with the pseudorandom sequence unique to A. All the three nodes A, B, C will receive the signal as they are sharing the channel. But the signal on decoding will only appear useful to A while it will appear as noise to B and C.



GSM (Global System for Mobile communication)

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.

Mobile services based on GSM technology were first launched in Finland in 1991. Today, more than 690 mobile networks provide GSM services across 213 countries and GSM represents 82.4% of all global mobile connections. According to GSM World, there are now more than 2 billion GSM mobile phone users worldwide. GSM World references China as “the largest single GSM market, with more than 370 million users, followed by Russia with 145 million, India with 83 million and the USA with 78 million users.”

Since many GSM network operators have roaming agreements with foreign operators, users can often continue to use their mobile phones when they travel to other countries. SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module) holding home network access configurations may be switched to those will metered local access, significantly reducing roaming costs while experiencing no reductions in service.

GSM, together with other technologies, is part of the evolution of wireless mobile telemmunications that includes High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), General Packet Radio System (GPRS), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), and Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS).

From a user’s point of view, the actual standard is not really important, with two caveats: first, you can’t use a phone that uses one standard with the provider that uses the other standard; second, if you travel internationally, a GSM phone is almost a must.



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