Category Archives: Technology


Difference Between WiMAX and Wi-Fi…………..

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are wireless technologies. “WiMAX” stands for “Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access” and “Wi-Fi” stands for “Wireless Fidelity.” They are different from each other in many ways. In this article we will discuss WiMAX IEEE 802.16 and Wi-Fi 802.11.

WiMAX has two different versions; fixed and mobile versions. The mobile version is 802.16 m and can replace CDMA and GSM technologies. The fixed version is 802.16d, and 802.16e is used for home whereas Wi-Fi which comes in 802.11 families has many versions like 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n

Wi-Fi operates in spectrum which is unlicensed. It may interfere with each other and with cordless phones also. It can operate in uncontrolled environments along with Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, and sometimes microwave frequencies too. This results in a powerful device, and the one which is closer to the access point getting more airtime than its fair share. Whereas WiMAX was developed in a way that it requires a license. The frequencies and license has to be purchased. These frequencies are more powerful and of a higher range. It has more of control and command and can be used for cable, Internet, and DSL. It helps in providing services like video, data, voice, etc.




Connect two computer via Wi-Fi in windows 7………


  • Click on the icon that shows the wi-fi connection and select the Open Network and Sharing Center.

  • select the Set up a connection or network at the center.

  • Choose “Set up a wireless ad hoc (computer-to-computer) network” and click Next. move down for selecting that.

  • You will now see a window that says “Set up an ad hoc network (sometimes called a computer-to-computer network) is a temporary network used for sharing files, presentations, or an Internet connection among multiple computers and devices. Computers and devices in ad hoc networks must be within 30 feet of each other. If you’re currently connected to a wireless network, you might be disconnected when you set up this network.” Click Next.

  • After that you will have to give the name to your network and the select the security type and then give the password.(I use niks-network as network name, WEP for security type and password 12345) Click Next. It is optional to check “Save this network” to save it as wireless network profile. If not, you’ll need to recreate it again the next time after a reboot

  • Wait for Windows 7 to set up the temporary ad-hoc network

  • Once it has finished setting up, it’ll tell you that the network is ready to use.




Advantages of Windows Home Server………..

  • Cures and prevents performance-robbing fragmentation before it happens.

Diskeeper with IntelliWrite® fragmentation prevention technology is the only solution that cures and prevents up to 85% of the fragmentation every system suffers from. It intelligently writes files all lined up side-by-side so system resources are not wasted by creating fragmentation. The results? Your home server runs faster than you every thought possible.

  • Optimizes your home server for 100% performance 24/7.

Diskeeper 2011 includes the new “just in time” Instant Defrag™ engine to eliminate any fragmentation that wasn’t prevented instantly – within seconds or milliseconds of occurring.

  • Provides unlimited defrag capacity.

Terabyte Volume Engine® technology is essential for home servers — it is capable of handling the biggest defrag jobs with unlimited volume sizes fast and thoroughly.

  • Maximizes free space.

The new free space consolidation engine in Diskeeper 2011 works efficiently to perform enough consolidation so that file fragmentation can be eliminated. It consolidates about 90% of free space into less than a dozen large free space chunks, improving file write performance significantly.

  • Significantly reduces I/O activities.

The new Efficient Mode uses advanced algorithms to maximize performance while eliminating disk I/O activity by prioritizing which files, folders and free space should be defragmented in order to improve your computing experience. Maximum performance from minimal effort!

  • Tracks your savings. New

New performance report tracks PC improvements from installation forward, so it’s even easier to quantify the benefits of running Diskeeper. It’s now easier than ever to see the major improvements to your system including I/Os saved, read and write access time improvements and how much fragmentation was prevented and eliminated.

  • Extends the productive life of your home server by up to 3 years.

Extend your home server life by an additional 1-3 years, saving you substantial hardware upgrade and replacement costs.



HTML vs XHTML…………….

This specification defines an abstract language for describing documents and applications, and some APIs for interacting with in-memory representations of resources that use this language.

The in-memory representation is known as «DOM5 HTML», or «the DOM» for short.

There are various concrete syntaxes that can be used to transmit resources that use this abstract language, two of which are defined in this specification.

The first such concrete syntax is «HTML5». This is the format recommended for most authors. It is compatible with most legacy Web browsers. If a document is transmitted with the MIME type text/html, then it will be processed as an «HTML5» document by Web browsers.

The second concrete syntax uses XML, and is known as «XHTML5». When a document is transmitted with an XML MIME type, such as application/xhtml+xml, then it is processed by an XML processor by Web browsers, and treated as an «XHTML5» document. Authors are reminded that the processing for XML and HTML differs; in particular, even minor syntax errors will prevent an XML document from being rendered fully, whereas they would be ignored in the «HTML5» syntax.

The «DOM5 HTML», «HTML5», and «XHTML5» representations cannot all represent the same content. For example, namespaces cannot be represented using «HTML5», but they are supported in «DOM5 HTML» and «XHTML5». Similarly, documents that use the noscript feature can be represented using «HTML5», but cannot be represented with «XHTML5» and «DOM5 HTML». Comments that contain the string «->» can be represented in «DOM5 HTML» but not in «HTML5» and «XHTML5». And so forth.



Windows Phone 7 vs. Android 2.2

Windows Phone 7 is a pretty OS with slick animations and fast performance. There are someissues that bug me about the operating system though and these include:

  • No multi-tasking, results in lots of reloading…
  • No cut, copy, and paste
  • No custom ringtone capability
  • Limited customizability on Start screen
  • Lack of some key apps (Evernote, Kindle or Nook, and podcatcher)
  • Office apps are pretty limited in terms of what you can do from the phone
  • Inconsistency in auto rotation (especially lame with kickstand and then Zune always in portrait mode)
  • Lock into Zune software for PC connections (no drive or file access)
  • Lack of tethering support
  • Lack of ability to capture screenshots

Many of these can be fixed with software updates (Microsoft already stated cut, copy, and past will indeed be fixed with an update very soon) and some with application releases. I am a huge podcast fan and would love to see Microsoft add support for discovering and downloading podcasts through the Zune integration. However, the true multi-tasking seen on the Android platform may never come to this platform and I don’t think Windows Phone 7 will ever be as customizable as Android.

Some of the pros of Windows Phone 7 over Android 2.2 include:

  • Slick and consistent UI (in terms of menus)
  • Decent app selection at launch (Netflix, Slacker, Slingplayer, Shazam, USAA, Endomondo, Xbox LIVE games)
  • Zune integration rocks and is good for downloading and streaming music
  • Facebook integration is good
  • Very stable
  • Superb Exchange support, including multiple Exchange account support

Some things I love about the Android OS on the MT4G include:

  • True multi-tasking where apps can be running at the same time as other apps
  • Customizability of the home screen and panels
  • Excellent application selection in the Android Market
  • Google services integration with Voice, Listen, Search, Gmail, and Maps
  • Full access to the directory structure on the device
  • Excellent Exchange integration with slick view options (conversation, faves, attachments)
  • Awesome mobile web browser with best text reflow support compared to ANY other platform
  • Google Maps Navigation service that is tough to beat and has proven to be reliable
  • WiFi Hotspot tethering capability
  • Widgets for things such as wireless connection management
  • Swype text entry keyboard

Cons of Android on the MT4G for me include:

  • Limited quality gaming
  • Repeated contact indexing with the Genius button
  • Lack of content sources for media (music and video)



Microsoft Expression Studio…………..

Expression Studio is a suite of tools for designing and building web and Windows client applications and rich digital media contents.

Microsoft introduced Microsoft Expression on September 16, 2005 at Microsoft’s Professional Developers Conference in Los Angeles. Microsoft Expression Studio was released to manufacturing on April 30, 2007. Microsoft Expression Studio 2 was released on May 1, 2008, which also included a graphical makeover for the suite to an inverse of the previous a white on black theme.

Microsoft Expression Studio 3 was released on July 22, 2009. On June 7, 2010, Expression Studio 4 was released. Expression Studio 4 is a free upgrade for licensed Expression Studio 3 users, but only for retail copies.

The suite consists of:

Microsoft Expression Web: Expression Web can design and develop web pages using XML, CSS 2.1, ASP.NET or ASP.NET AJAX, XHTML, XSLT, PHP and JavaScript. Expression Web 4 requires .NET Framework 4.0 and Silverlight 4.0 to install and run.

Microsoft Expression Blend + Sketch Flow: Microsoft Expression Blend is a user interface design tool for creating graphical interfaces for web and desktop applications . It is an interactive  for designing XAML-based interfaces for Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight applications.

Microsoft Expression Design: Microsoft Expression Design is vector andraster graphic design tool for web images based on Creature House Expression.

Microsoft Expression Encoder : Microsoft Expression Encoder  is a Windows-based program for encoding digital video for Silverlight-based web video. Expression Encoder can be used to create video compressed VC-1 as well as H.264 for distribution via Microsoft Silverlight.



What is a Microcontroller…………..

A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers like a standard computer, but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system, they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip.

A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor, which is a general-purpose chip that is used to create a multi-function computer or device and requires multiple chips to handle various tasks. A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent, and functions as a tiny, dedicated computer.

The great advantage of microcontrollers, as opposed to using

larger microprocessors, is that the parts-count and design costs of the item being controlled can be kept to a minimum. They are typically designed using CMOS (complementary metal oxidesemiconductor) technology, an efficient fabrication technique that uses less power and is more immune to power spikes than other techniques.

There are also multiple architectures used, but the predominant architecture is CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer), which allows the microcontroller to contain multiple control instructions that can be executed with a single macro instruction. Some use a RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture, which implements fewer instructions, but delivers greater simplicity and lower power consumption.

Early controllers were typically built from logic components and were usually quite large. Later, microprocessors were used, and controllers were able to fit onto a circuit board. Microcontrollers now place all of the needed components onto a single chip. Because they control a single function, some complex devices contain multiple microprocessors.

Microcontrollers have become common in many areas, and can be found in home appliances, computer equipment, and instrumentation. They are often used in automobiles, and have many industrial uses as well, and have become a central part of industrial robotics. Because they are usually used to control a single process and execute simple instructions, microcontrollers do not require significant processing power.



Connect two computers using a crossover cable……………..

If you need to connect two computers but you don’t have access to a network and can’t set up an ad hoc network, you can use an Ethernet crossover cable to create a direct cable connection.

Generally speaking, a crossover cable is constructed by reversing (“crossing over”) the order of the wires inside so that it can connect two computers directly. A crossover cable looks almost exactly like a regular Ethernet cable (a “straight-through” cable), so make sure you have a crossover cable before following these steps.

Before buying a crossover cable, check your network adapter. Some newer network adapters automatically “cross over” when they detect that they are connected directly to another network adapter using a regular Ethernet cable.

To connect two computers with a crossover cable

This works best if both computers are running this version of Windows.

  1. Plug each end of the crossover cable into a network port on the back of each computer.
  2. On one of the computers that is running this version of Windows, do the following:

Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, and then clicking Network and Sharing Center.

  1. In the network map at the top of Network and Sharing Center, double-click theUnidentified network‍ icon. (If you have more than one network, this icon will be labeled Multiple networks.)
  2. If network discovery and file sharing are turned off, in Network, click the Information bar containing the following message: “Network discovery and file sharing are turned off. Network computers and devices are not visible. Click to change…,” and then click Turn on network discovery and file sharing.  If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
  3. In the Network discovery and file sharing dialog box, select one of the following options:
  • No, make the network that I am connected to a private network
  • Yes, turn on network discovery and file sharing for all public networks

The first option is usually the best choice because it only affects the network that you are connected to.


General packet radio services (GPRS)……….

It is a modification to the GSM standard thatallows one to access the internet whilst on the move. It allowsfor speeds as high as 114 kbps. The introduction of GPRS tothe GSM standard allowedusers to use the followingapplications:

Multimedia messagingservice (MMS): an extensionto the SMS service that allowstransfer of pictures, video andaudio as messages.

Push to talk (PTT): afeature that allows the user touse the phone like a two wayradio, pressing a button to beimmediately connected to aclosed group of people.

WAP: abbreviationfor wireless applicationprotocol, this feature allowsapplications on the mobilephone to connect to theinternet.

Email: runs on WAP.With the introduction ofGPRS, GSM is considered tohave become a 2.5G standard.

In 1999, the GSM standard was modified to include EDGE(enhanced data rates for GSM evolution). By 2003, providershad started implementing EDGE. EDGE is a technologybackward compatible to GPRS. It allows for transfer rates ashigh as 1 Mbps.

With these improvements on GSM and equivalent ones inCDMA, mobile technology continues to improve. Today, bothGSM and CDMA are threatened by 3G services such as UMTS.Steps have been taken towards even the next generation, namely4G. Let us take a look at these.



Commercial wireless technologies and examples……..

Here is a list of commercial wireless technologies availabletoday.

AM radio

Amplitude modulated radio used for long range audiobroadcasting. For example, Akashavani.

FM radio

Frequency modulated radio, provides better quality of sound forshort range broadcasting. For example, Radio City.

Short wave radio

Used for communications, handheld radios and walkie talkies.For example, radio handsets used by law enforcement agencies.

TV broadcasting

Digitally modulated signals carrying live audio and video fortelevision audience. For example, Tata Sky.

Satellite communications

Satellites in geostationary orbits are used to capture andrebroadcast signals for intercontinental communications. Forexample, the INSAT series.


Global system for mobile communications is a cellulartelephony technology based on time division and frequencydivision multiplexing. Operates at 900, 1,800 and 2,700 MHz.For example, Airtel, Idea, etc.


This is a cellular telephony technology based on code division multiplexing. For example, Tata Indicom and RelianceCommunications.


TV remote controls use this as a means of communication.

Cordless telephones

Use radio waves to avoid the wire connecting the handset andthe base unit.


Satellite-based positioning service that uses radio waves.

Wireless peripherals

Use radio waves instead of wires to connect to the PC. Forexample, wireless keyboard and mice.


5-GHz short range wireless technology that allows several typesof equipped electronic devices to interconnect.


Also known as IEEE 802.11a, b, g and n, this allows wirelesslocal area networks to be set up. It also allows local wirelessinternet connections called hotspots.


Radio frequency identification devices, in which objects/humans/animals wear small radio tagged devices that allowthem to be located. For example, radio collars for dogs.



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